## Video lesson plan for: Binary Operations Introduction

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All information in a computer is stored and transmitted as sequences of bits, or binary digits. A bit is a single piece of data which can be thought of as either zero or one. This activity demonstrates how sequences of these binary operation lesson plan symbols can be used to represent any number. Copyright cC. This lesson and supporting materials may be copied for nonprofit educational use only. Part of this lesson was adapted from a freely available sample lesson in Computer Science Unplugged cby Bell, Witten, and Fellows.

Script for your binary operation lesson plan, for guiding children to discover binary numbers. Have the students make these as described below. Copy of the Secret Numbers worksheet for each student. Help Cinda Get To School worksheet for each student. Binary Piano craft worksheets as desired.

Binary magic trick handouts as desired. Counting to on Your Fingers worksheets as desired. The first part of this lesson is a discovery exercise which should stimulate students to learn to count in binary, as well as to reinforce their understanding of place value. You should review the questions binary operation lesson plan the script before leading the discussion with your students, but don't feel like you have to memorize the whole thing.

Keep the script handy! Also note that your discussion will probably not follow the script exactly. It is provided as a guide to help you keep your discussion binary operation lesson plan track.

The dialogue took place between Rick Garlikov and a class of 3rd graders. Explain the motivation for the lesson, and tell the students that we're now going to play some games which will give us practice in writing binary numbers.

Divide students into small groups optional - this lesson can be done by individuals, pairs or small groups. Distribute flash cards, one set to each student or group. The first time you do this lesson you'll have to have the students make binary operation lesson plan cards. The binary operation lesson plan should look something like this example: The large cards are approximately 3in binary operation lesson plan 4in, and the small squares are 2.

Note that the small cards have a zero on one side and a one on the other. Have students sort the cards in descending order so that the largest is on the left and the smallest is on the right.

High school kids should say something like "powers of 2. Another fun thing to point out is that each card is one more than the sum of all the cards lower than it. Have the students turn over the cards so the numbers are hidden. To reinforce their memory of the different place values call out numbers for them to "find.

Some students might point out that they don't have 3, but they do have 1 and 2. Do a couple other sums which involve 2 cards, then move to 3 cards, etc. Now flip the cards back over so that the number is showing. Call out a number, and have the students place 1s above the cards which sum to that number, and 0s above all other cards.

For example, if you say binary operation lesson plan, students place 1s above cards 8, 2, and 1, and 0s above 16 and 4. If some students find the binary operation lesson plan quickly, challenge them to find another solution they won't be able to do so. Have older kids turn over the flash cards after the first example so they get to practice remembering the values.

Ask if anyone in the class has a system for finding an answer. Upper grades should have done so. Request that a student demonstrate binary operation lesson plan system to the group quickly.

A good method for doing this is to subtract the largest power of two you can from the original number, then subtract the largest power of two you can from that number, then subtract the largest power of 2 you can from that number, etc. Then, write 1s in the places of the powers of two you subtracted and 0s elsewhere: Older kids should see the binary expansion as a sum of products where the decimal value is equal to the sum of binary operation lesson plan binary digit multiplied by its corresponding power of 2.

Spend a few minutes reemphasizing the connection between binary numbers to decimal numbers. For example, the decimal value is equal to four s plus five 10s binary operation lesson plan three 1s.

Similarly, the binary value is equal to one plus one plus one 64 plus one 4 plus one 1. You may want to point out that just as the place values in the decimal representation are powers of 10, the place values in the binary representation are powers of 2.

What number is binary ? Try to have the advanced students visualize the cards. Can we do all numbers up to the maximum discussed above? We won't go all the way to That would take too long. Instead we'll go to Each of these 4 students represents one of the flash cards used in the earlier exercises.

Have the remaining students direct the 4 students to show 0s or 1s, and sit or binary operation lesson plan accordingly. Start with 0, all 4 students should show 0s, and be seated. Next do 1, students should showand the rightmost person should stand up.

Then 2 should beetc. Try to elicit a system for incrementing the numbers. Point binary operation lesson plan that this system is like adding 1 each time. Younger kids may not see a system. Can all numbers be represented using only 0s and 1s if I gave you enough cards?

What's a simple proof of this? Ones and zeros are not explicitly written on the hard drive or transmitted over the modem. Rather, they are represented by a magnetic orientation of the segments on a hard drive, and by high and low tones in data transmission.

Since bits by themselves don't represent much information, they are commonly stored together in groups of size 8 called bytes. Distribute the Secret Numbers worksheet for students to complete. Each student creates a secret number and gives it to a friend to decode. Then the original student checks the decoding and completes the remainder of the worksheet, which also prompts thought about what numbers in base 3 would be like.

The second part asks for deeper understanding of the notion of place value. This lesson extends gracefully into a discussion of bases and number systems. Have the students develop a base 7 number system and practice writing numbers in that system. Compare the number of digits used to represent a number in base 7 with the number binary operation lesson plan digits used to represent a number in base 2. Advanced students may be able to prove that a binary representation is unique. How high can you count if you use your toes as well?

Allow students to discover certain pleasant characteristics of binary numbers. Binary operation lesson plan example, to multiply a binary number by 2, simply add on another 0 in the least significant rightmost bit. How can you divide by two? What number is represented by 1? What is the pattern? What number is represented by ? Which of these characteristics have analogs in other bases? What base would an alien use to contact us initially? Assuming the alien doesn't know that our numeric system is decimal, the alien would use unary just 1s as a tally of the values.

Suppose the alien counts in base If the binary operation lesson plan communicated to us in base 13, we wouldn't be able to recognize the values. Higher grade students should be asked to articulate the difference between numbers and their representations.

Have two students stand apart with 5 chairs between them. Ask one to walk to the other, going left or right around each chair. See the Help Cinda get to School handout associated with this activity. How many ways to do this are there? The answer will become more clear if you place a tag on the floor reading "0" to the left of each chair, and reading "1" to the right of each chair, and then ask the children to write down the sequence that they spell out during their walk.

How many ways to make a pizza are there, if there are 7 different toppings? This extends nicely into a lesson on elementary combinatorics: How many ways are there to get dressed if binary operation lesson plan can choose between 3 pairs of pants, 5 shirts, and 4 pairs of shoes?

Rick Garlikov's paper on using the Socratic Method for teaching binary numbers Standards:

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Short Overview This lesson plan outlines the necessary and optional steps to teach students how to draw N-space cubes hypercubes using both an intuitive visual and a mathematical approach.

It introduces them to a research problem to find maximal length paths using a few special rules in hypercubes. They will use geometry, topology, algebra and the binary arithmetic exclusive OR XOR or EOR for an activity that they are almost guaranteed never to have studied.

Students are shown that not all problems have known answers. Prep Time hours Because this lesson teaches an unfamiliar subject, the teacher should prepare well in advance of the class.

The author will gladly answer questions by email or telephone. Objectives Learn to draw 4-space cubes by hand with an intuitive, visual approach. Learn to draw 4-space cubes using a binary, mathematical approach. Discover 3, 4, and 5-space maximal length paths snakes by hand. Name maximal length snakes using binary node names. Name maximal length snakes using an edge line numbering method. Discover n-cube's relation to Pascal's Triangle. Learn rudimentary definition of topology and how it applies to hypercubes.

Discover why the problem of finding snakes explodes computationally at 7-space. Define the Computer as a tool that extends the reach of your mind. Realize that the answers to problems are not always known. That is what is fun about research! Read "Chasing Snakes in N-space Cubes" also found online at http: Present the lesson in one or more sessions.

Steps Optional Employ student s to create 3-D n-cubes by drilling holes in wooden balls and testing pre-assembling n-cubes. The holes in the wooden balls should be drilled ahead of time so that students can assemble the N-cubes in class. Discover, map, and verify a 5-space snake on an 5-cube template visually without math.

Create 5-space cubes using the XOR binary operation, rules about adjacent corners of hypercubes and the naming of hypercube vertices with binary numbers. Define and find maximal length paths snakes in 5-space hypercubes.

They will be able to verify that a snake is both maximal length and valid. Name snakes using binary-named vertices that occur in a snake on a hypercube. Name snakes using the "edges" or lines that constitute a snake in a hypercube.