## Binary data

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Forms and interpretations of binary data come in different technical and scientific fields. Such two-valued unit can be termed:. A discrete variable that can take only one state contains zero informationand 2 is the next natural number after 1.

That is why the bita variable with only two possible values, is a standard primary unit of information. A collection of n bits may have 2 n states: Number of states of a collection of discrete variables depends exponentially on the number of variables, and only as a power law on number of states of each variable.

Ten bits have more states than three decimal digits So, the use of any other small number than 2 does not provide an advantage. Moreover, Boolean algebra provides a convenient mathematical structure for collection of bits, with a semantic of a collection of propositional variables.

Boolean algebra operations are known as " bitwise operations " in computer science. Boolean functions are also well-studied theoretically and easily implementable, either with computer programs or by so-named logic gates in digital electronics.

This contributes to the use of bits to represent different data, even those originally not binary. In statisticsbinary data is a statistical data type described by binary variableswhich can take only two possible values. Binary data represents the outcomes of Bernoulli trials â€”statistical experiments with only two possible outcomes. It is a type of categorical datawhich more binary stream for information technology represents experiments with a fixed number of possible outcomes. The two values in a binary variable, despite being coded numerically as 0 and 1, are generally considered to exist binary stream for information technology a nominal scalemeaning they represent qualitatively different values that cannot be compared numerically.

In this respect, also, binary data is similar to categorical binary stream for information technology but distinct from count data or other types of numeric data.

Often, binary data is used to represent one of two conceptually opposed values, e. However, it can also be used for data that is assumed to have only two possible values, even if they are not conceptually opposed or conceptually represent all possible values in the space.

For example, binary data is often used to represent the party choices of voters in elections in the United Statesi. In this case, there is no inherent reason why only two political parties should exist, and indeed, other parties do exist in the U.

Like all discretizationit involves discretization errorbut the goal is to learn something valuable despite the error treating it as negligible for the purpose at hand, but remembering that it cannot be assumed to be negligible in general. Binary variables that are random variables are distributed according to a Bernoulli distribution.

Regression analysis on predicted outcomes that are binary variables is accomplished through logistic regressionprobit regression or a related type of discrete choice model. In modern computersbinary data refers to any data represented in binary form rather than interpreted on a higher level or converted into some other form. At the lowest binary stream for information technology, bits are stored in a bistable device binary stream for information technology as a flip-flop.

While most binary data has symbolic meaning except for binary stream for information technology cares not all binary data is numeric. Some binary data corresponds to computer instructionssuch as the data within processor registers decoded by the control binary stream for information technology along the fetch-decode-execute cycle. Computers rarely modify individual bits for performance reasons.

Instead, data is aligned in groups of a fixed number of bits, usually 1 byte 8 bits. Hence, "binary data" in computers are actually sequences of bytes. On a higher level, data is accessed in groups of 1 word 4 bytes for bit systems and 2 words for bit systems. In applied computer science and in the information technology field, the term binary data is often specifically opposed to text-based datareferring to any sort of data that cannot be interpreted as text.

However, it often refers specifically to whether the individual bytes of a file are interpretable as text see character encoding or cannot so be interpreted. When this last meaning is intended, the more specific terms binary format and text ual format are sometimes used.