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Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. Social interaction directly correlated with sociology regarding social structure. One of the most important social structures is status. One of the nonbinary womenedit edit source important statuses an individual claims is gender. The term gender role was coined by John Money in a seminal paper where he defined it as "all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman.

A person's gender is complex, encompassing countless characteristics of appearance, speech, movement and other factors not solely limited to biological sex. Societies tend to have binary gender systems in which everyone is categorized as male or female.

Some societies include a third gender role; for instance, the Native American Two-Spirit people and the Hijras of India. There is debate over the extent to which gender is a social construct or a biological construct.

During the s, there was no consensus about how the terms were to be applied. Bymost feminist writings had agreed on using gender only for socioculturally adapted traits.

Liberal feminism is the belief that individuals should be free to develop their own talents and pursue their interests. Individuals seek to expand equality by removing the barriers in society. Socialist feminism thinks that capitalism strengthens patriarchy by concentrating wealth and power in the hands of a few. The traditional family structure should be replaced by nonbinary womenedit edit source collective revolution.

In Radical feminism, they believe that patriarchy is so deeply rooted in society that even a sociological revolution would not end it; Society must eliminate gender itself. In English, both sex and gender are used in contexts where they could not be substituted sexual intercourse; anal sex; safe sex; sex worker; sex slave.

Other languages, like Germanuse the same word Geschlecht to refer both to grammatical gender and to biological sex, making the distinction between sex and gender advocated by some anthropologists difficult. In some contexts, German has adopted the English loan-word gender to achieve this distinction. More common is the use of modifiers: Media criticism is a reflection of the gender inequality in society through print, advertisements, television and music. Through the media, men are taught to be ultra-masculine by being desensitized, violent, and physically strong.

These forms encourage nonbinary womenedit edit source to oppress other men if they do not fit the ideals of heteromasculinity.

This can be examined in the context of advertisements, where objects may be anthropomorphized and given feminine qualities or aspects of the female form. Socialization theory offers a straightforward account of the acquisition of gendered identities. Infants are seen as blank slates, waiting to be written down on by their environment. Through their interactions with people nonbinary womenedit edit source to them and exposure to the values of their society, infants learn what sex is attributed to them and what roles they are expected to learn.

Reinforcement through rewarding gender-appropriate behavior and punishing what may seem as deviant behavior socializes children into their genders. Parents and family can influence the way that a child develops their view of gender.

These types of influences nonbinary womenedit edit source include parental attitudes and difference of treatment regarding male and female children.

Researcher Susan Witt claims that parents also expose children to gender from the time they are born via specific toys, colors, and names associated with genders in the binary. Witt suggests that parental attitudes about gender can differ from male to female children and that these attitudes develop quickly after a child's birth. Author Susan Grieshaber, in "Constructing the Gendered Infant", suggests that attitudes regarding pregnancy change after parents find out the sex of their child, subsequently changing parental attitudes towards the unborn child.

According to Grieshaber's theory, once parents determine the sex of their unborn child, they assume a gender while planning for the child's arrival. Nonbinary womenedit edit source of this, Grieshaber claims that nonbinary womenedit edit source are born into a gendered world where they never know anything other than the gender traits nonbinary womenedit edit source are assumed due to their sex. Kara Smith utilizes similar theory throughout the analysis of her pregnancy journals kept throughout her second pregnancy.

Smith's claim is reflected in changes in tone of voice when talking to the unborn child nonbinary womenedit edit source well as differences in physical touch of her stomach throughout the rest of her nonbinary womenedit edit source.

Throughout the findings of McHale's study, it is maintained that parents still have the most familial influence on childhood socialization. By the time children reach the age of three, many will have acquired a firm sense of themselves as male or female, a gender identity that remains throughout life.

In addition, many pre-schoolers develop a firm awareness of gender stereotypesinsisting that certain activities or items of clothing are not for girls and others not for boys. Yet gender identity does not automatically follow from nonbinary womenedit edit source sex.

Adults respond differently to communicative efforts of boys and girls. A study of infants aged 13 months found that when boys demand attention - by behaving aggressively, or crying, whining or screaming - they tended to get it.

By contrast, adults tended to respond to girls only when they used language, gestures, or gentle touches; girls who used attention-seeking techniques were likely ignored. There was little difference in the communicative patterns at the start of the study, but by the age of two, the girls have become more talkative and nonbinary womenedit edit source more assertive in their communicative techniques. The norms that are taught throughout childhood are influential in an individual's life because the ideas about gender that are typically taught by parents in early years are reinforced outside of the home.

Mick Cunningham states that the normative behaviors and attitudes that children observe can influence the way that these children grow up to structure their own nonbinary womenedit edit source in adulthood. Underrepresentation such as this can affect children and their views of gender. Some children are raised in atypical households that challenge normative gender roles.

In Jada Tidwell's study, she observes the play of children who come from households with lesbian feminist mothers both single mothers and couples. Tidwell's observations consisted of both individual play as well as play integrated with the mothers. According to Tidwell, households that challenge hegemonic cultural ideas ultimately give children a different perspective of gender than those of children raised in heterosexual, two parent households.

In the families studied by Jada Tidwell, children reported ideas that both endorsed and challenged stereotypical gender roles at times. Goldberg's findings suggest that children whose parents are of the same gender tend to play in ways that are less adherent to stereotypical gender roles than children from heterosexual households.

One of the most influential of the psychoanalytic theories of gender identity is the perspective developed in the book The Reproduction of Mothering. Its author, Nancy Chodorow, traces the implications for emotional development by linking them with the way mothers usually care for their infants in their formative years, while fathers are more emotionally distant.

This process however operates differently for boys and girls. Girls can separate gradually, maintain a continuous sense of relationship with the mother, who is after all experienced as alike. For boys, on the other hand, separating from the mother, who is experienced as nonbinary womenedit edit source, involves repressing the feminine aspects of themselves and rejecting their tenderness that was central to that early relationship.

Boys' sense of maleness, according to Chodorow, is achieved at a great emotional cost. Consequently, men grow up to have a more autonomous sense of self, and to be more independent, more instrumental and competitive in their dealings with others. They are also more likely to have difficulty expressing their emotions and to be anxious about intimacy. Women, on the other hand, have more ability and more need to sustain relationship with others. They have difficulty however in maintaining the boundaries of an independent and autonomous self.

Chodorow however nonbinary womenedit edit source that these patterns aren't inevitable. Changes nonbinary womenedit edit source the social arrangements for care of children such as dual parenting, which would involve fathers in emotional intimacy with their children, can break the cycle.

Before industrialization, economic activity, which centered around agricultural work, crafts and so on, was organized by households. Household members, whether male or female, young or old, contributed to the family's livelihood. Although women might do some types of work nonbinary womenedit edit source men others, depending on region and class, the distinction between men as breadwinners and women as housewives didn't characterize pre-industrial divisions of labor.

Industrialization shifted much productive activity to factories, shops and offices. This separation of work from home signaled a profound change in gender relations and gender discourse.

The home came to be understood not as the nonbinary womenedit edit source of a family enterprise, but as a refuge from the world of work. Women were defined as the keepers of the home, as it was seen as their nature to create harmony and virtue rather than services and goods.

Preindustrial society relied on gendered roles nonbinary womenedit edit source the workforce to create equilibrium between men and women. Men were assigned the hunter role while women were assigned the domestic roles. Men were expected to supply food and shelter for the family while women were the caretakers for the children and their household.

As centuries passed, this continued and created a divide in gendered roles in labor. Women remained dependent on men to provide, this dependence led to male roles being more valued in society which still remains in the 21st century. Some research has found that, in classroom settings, male students tend to talk more, and longer, than female students.

This was determined to be particularly noticeable when the instructor is male. Similar results were found previously in hospitals by Erving Goffman inuniversity discussion groups by Elizabeth Aries inand in corporate settings by Rosabeth Kanter in Women and men experience different types of mobility within the workplace. Women tend to experience a glass ceilingan invisible barrier that prevents them from moving up the corporate ladder.

Men in jobs nonbinary womenedit edit source held nonbinary womenedit edit source women, such as nursing, elementary school teaching, and social work, experience a "glass escalator" effect in which they are able to quickly ascend the job hierarchy to become managers and principals. One cause of the gender pay gap may be due to occupational segregationwhich pushes men and women towards gender-specific forms of employment, rather than pay discrimination. Another cause is the double burdena phenomenon in which women perform nonbinary womenedit edit source of the unpaid childcare and household work despite being otherwise employed for pay.

A third cause is occupational sexismone part of which favors men for promotions due nonbinary womenedit edit source their traditional breadwinner status.

In addition, nonbinary womenedit edit source emergence of transgender individuals in the workplace has begun nonbinary womenedit edit source disrupt the gender binary of male and female. By creating a hybrid gender identity, [29] the transgender community suggests notions of movement toward nonbinary womenedit edit source. Intersectionality is a Neo-Marxist concept stemming from a critical theory social analysis of nonbinary womenedit edit sourceraceand gender.

The theory of intersectionality argues that forms of "inequality, oppression, and privilege" are shaped by interconnected axes of identity, and are mutually reinforced by social interactions and by social, political, and economic structures, such as capitalism, patriarchy, and institutionalized heteronormativity. For example, they critique the additive model, in which the whole will never be greater or lesser than the sum of it parts.

By analyzing each identity marker as an individual characteristic, we ignore nonbinary womenedit edit source effect of the interconnection of these markers. Additional sociologists have written about the intersectionality of class, race, and gender.

Joan Acker outlines four gendered processes of intersectionality. The first includes procedures that create hierarchies based on gender and race. Another is the process in which social images and ideas condone gendered institutions.

The third is a process of interaction between individuals and nonbinary womenedit edit source that, through communication, creates gender. The fourth nonbinary womenedit edit source the internal labeling of the self and others to gendered personas.

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The binary genders are the two options for gender given in cultures that use the gender binary system of putting all people into gender categories. The binary genders are female woman, girl and male man, boy.

For gender expression , the two options are feminine and masculine. Nonbinary genders are those that don't fit into the gender binary system , and don't entirely match one of the binary genders.

That said, some nonbinary people identify with one or both of the binary genders, at least in part. Although the gender binary system is coercive and limiting, the binary genders themselves are valid identities. The existence of nonbinary genders doesn't make the binary genders less valid.

Anyone with a female gender identity is female: Experiences held in common by women of all walks of life include that they want to be called by "she" pronouns , and that they are systematically oppressed by patriarchy. Any woman's womanhood is valid no matter what kind of body parts she has, or what gender she was assigned at birth. Having or wanting to have a vagina, or having the ability or desire to give birth, are not what makes someone a woman. Only identifying as a woman makes someone a woman.

Cisgender women and transgender women are both equally women. Although "female" is one of the binary genders, someone can be both female and nonbinary. Sources with limited understanding or familiarity with transgender and intersex issues sometimes use "female" or "women" to mean not only people who identify as female, but also anyone who was assigned female at birth AFAB , and people who are perceived as women PPW.

However, people who are AFAB or PPW don't necessarily identify themselves as women, which is the crucial criteria for whether someone is a woman. Cisgender women are women who were assigned female at birth or were born with certain intersex conditions , and who have a female gender identity.

It is possible for a cisgender woman to have a body with few of the above physical characteristics that are usually used to describe a typical cisgender female body. For example, cisgender women who have had hysterectomies and mastectomies to survive cancer are nonetheless real women, as much as they ever were. Furthermore, having the above characteristics do not make someone a cisgender woman. For example, some people who were assigned female at birth but identify as a different gender have these characteristics.

Some people with intersex conditions have these physical characteristics, but don't consider themselves cisgender women.

The ability to give birth creates a physical vulnerability that is exploited by patriarchy. Patriarchy began as a system based around the control of the part of the population who generally can give birth, by the part that generally can't.

Women and people who can give birth are not completely synonymous groups. There are sterile women, fertile trans men, and so on.

Still, these two groups have the most overlap. Patriarchy means that, as a group, men control women. They exert this control in every part of society, through the systems that are built into that society.

Some of the many forms of how patriarchy controls, oppresses, and abuses women include:. All of these things oppress women. The system of patriarchy maintains itself by making it difficult for women to get the power to challenge or escape the oppression. Feminism is activism against patriarchy, and it begins with activism to give women the legal status of people.

The outward signs of that legal status are the right to choose what happens to their own bodies legal access to birth control , the right to own property, and the right to vote.

These can only be done by those who are legally recognized as persons. Feminism is a movement that can make equal rights for people of all genders by liberating them all from patriarchy, but feminism has its main focus on fulfilling the needs of cisgender women, because patriarchy has its main focus on oppressing them. Transgender women are women who were assigned male at birth or had certain intersex conditions , and who have a female gender identity.

Like any women, they ask to be called by "she" pronouns , and their sexual orientation can be lesbian, heterosexual, or otherwise. This is the male-to-female transgender spectrum. Older psychological and medical writings wrongly call trans women "male transsexuals" or "male transvestites", and call them by unwanted "he" pronouns. Trans women are women, not feminine men or gay men. Many transgender women transition to address gender dysphoria , and some also consider themselves to be transsexual women.

Any transgender person's transition path is very individual. Common features in a transgender woman's transition path include hormone therapy to create a balance with estrogen higher than testosterone, and a wide variety of kinds of surgery to choose from.

Patriarchy oppresses and devalues all forms of womanhood and femininity, not only of cisgender women, but also of trans women, called trans-misogyny.

Julia Serano made the word for her trans-feminist book, Whipping Girl: Patriarchy sees trans women as a threat that could undermine its power and rigidity.

One feature of a trans-misogynistic culture is that by far, the most kinds of hate speech and slurs used against trans people are those used specifically against trans women. Violence against and murder of trans people also, by far, most commonly targets trans women, especially trans women of colour. The Transgender Day of Remembrance gives a memorial to the many trans people who are murdered each year around the world.

These are nearly all trans women of colour. In the transgender community, " gatekeeper " is slang for the system of health providers that decide whether to allow a transgender person to get gender-validating health care. One form of this pressure is that gatekeepers told trans women not to interact with other trans women outside of gender centers, saying that this would invalidate their womanhood.

Keeping trans women isolated from one another in this way made it so that trans women couldn't organize among themselves to do activism for their own rights. Historically, these male-to-female spectrum people have been made of some people who were analogous to modern, Western ideas of trans women, as well as some people who are not so analogous to that. Some people identify as both nonbinary and as a binary gender such as female. They see themselves as almost but not quite fitting into the gender binary, and feel an association with being female, while still feeling that it's significant that they don't fit into that category.

Depending on how the individual defines their identity, they may consider themself to be nonbinary women if they also consider themself to be demigirl , femme , butch , stone , genderfluid , multigender , genderqueer , female bodybuilder , or other kinds of identities. Anyone with a male gender identity is male: Experiences held in common by men of all walks of life include that they want to be called by "he" pronouns , and that patriarchy grants them male privilege in exchange for conformity.

Any man's manhood is valid regardless of what kind of body parts he has, or what gender he was assigned at birth. Having or wanting to have a penis are not what makes someone a man.

Only identifying as a man makes someone a man. Cisgender men and transgender men are both equally men. Although "male" is one of the two binary genders , someone can be both male and nonbinary. Sources with limited understanding or familiarity with transgender and intersex issues sometimes use "male" or "men" to mean not only people who identify as male, but also anyone who was assigned male at birth AMAB , and people who are perceived as men PPM.

However, people who are AMAB or PPM don't necessarily identify themselves as men, which is the crucial criteria for whether someone is a man. Male privilege means they have the power to use systematic oppression against others if they choose. That power to choose is a privilege, one that systematically oppressed people don't have.

Conformity means that if men don't keep up acting male enough, their privilege is in a state of jeopardy. Men tend not to challenge patriarchy for a variety of reasons. These reasons are based around a lack of awareness of the situation, and fear for their own wellbeing. This is how the system of patriarchy makes sure that even the oppressors are kept under control and working in its service.

These obstacles make it unlikely for men to take up feminism. The male feminist movement was short-lived, and was replaced by Men's Rights Activists, who do activism to maintain the oppression of women, and to bring back s-style gender values. Cisgender men are men who were assigned male at birth or were born with certain intersex conditions , and who have a male gender identity.

Cisgender means "not transgender," as they don't transition to male from some other gender. It is possible for a cisgender man to have a body with few of the above physical characteristics that are usually used to describe a typical cisgender male body.

For example, cisgender men who have lost their genitals due to disease or injury are nonetheless real men, as much as they ever were. Furthermore, having the above characteristics do not make someone a cisgender man. For example, some people who were assigned male at birth but identify as a different gender have these characteristics. Some people with intersex conditions have these physical characteristics, but don't consider themselves cisgender men.

Meanwhile, some intersex people consider themselves to be cisgender men. Transgender men are men who were assigned female at birth or had certain intersex conditions , and who have a male gender identity. Like any men, they ask to be called by "he" pronouns , and their sexual orientation can be gay, heterosexual, or otherwise. This is the female-to-male transgender spectrum. Older psychological and medical writings wrongly call trans men "female transsexuals" or "female transvestites", and call them by unwanted "she" pronouns.

Trans men are men, not masculine women or butch lesbians. Many transgender men transition to address gender dysphoria , and some also consider themselves to be transsexual men. Common features in a transgender man's transition path include hormone therapy to create a balance with testosterone higher than estrogen, and surgery to remove breasts double mastectomy, in this situation called female to male chest reconstruction , and sometimes to remove their internal reproductive organs complete hysterectomy.

Many trans men choose not to get genital surgery, or are satisfied with contemporary methods that create a penis that looks and works differently to that of a cisgender man. With hormones alone, a trans man can easily be seen as a man in daily life, which owes partially to how patriarchy polices manhood differently than womanhood. Many people-- even young trans men-- grow up in Western civilization without knowing that trans men exist. Trans men are an invisible minority.

Invisibility makes it difficult for trans men to take their first steps to come out and begin their transition. This is safer than the hypervisibility that constantly puts trans women in physical danger.

Trans men are rarely targeted with violence for being trans. Starting around in the s, because gatekeepers weren't able to accommodate the needs of trans men in a worthwhile enough way to make them feel unable to leave the system, many trans men organized among themselves to do activism, "to get away from the gender center and work around it". As a result, many trans rights groups are made up of more trans men than trans women, or at least started that way.