Strukturalisme (Ferdinand de Saussure) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Subsequent reforestation projects by the local authority have been uneven and ineffective in bringing back the protective function of the forest. With current farming practices, the trend of regrowth forest formation will persist into the future. We evaluated the reforestation approach in the Dieng Mountains by investigating the development of regrowth forests, and based on the result, suggest improvements to present restoration efforts.

The importance value index of each species was calculated; species richness and diversity were estimated using the Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation SPADE program. The low tree regenerations in all the habitats may be attributed to harsh environmental conditions caused by the high altitudinal location and the impact of forest clearings, as well as competition with herbs and the effect of human activities.

Tree species planted during the reforestation programs, Acacia decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens, and Schima wallichii, dominated pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya habitats. Compared with similar studies in pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya secondary forests, the richness of plant species found in the Dieng Mountains was considerably lower, especially that of woody plants.

As human pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya in the Dieng Mountains continue to expand, the fate of the secondary vegetation in this area may be determined by future interference by humans. Abandoned farmland Dieng Mountains Highland Land degradation Reforestation Regrowth forest pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya b s t r a c t In the Dieng Mountains, encroachment of the protection forest by locals has resulted in conversion of the land into agricultural fields, followed by abandonment.

We evalu- ated the reforestation approach in the Dieng Mountains by investigating the development of regrowth forests, and based on the result, suggest improvements to present restoration efforts.

Vegetation data were collected using stratified systematic sampling on three types of disturbed habitats found in the area: The development of the secondary vegetation in the Dieng Mountains was highly influ- enced by its land use history and the local government's reforestation programs.

The low tree regenera- tions in all the habitats may be attributed to harsh environmental conditions caused by the high altitudinal location and the impact of forest clearings, as well as competition with herbs and the effect of human activities. Pioneer shrub species Melastoma affine and grasses Imperata cylindrica and Isachne globosa, as well as ruderal species Eupatorium odoratum, Eupato- rium riparium, Buddleja asiatica, and Rubus rosaefolius dominated the undergrowth vegetation.

Gleichenia dichotoma's domination seemed to suppress the growth of coexisting grass species, leading to the dom- ination of Conyza javanica over pioneer grass species in grassland. The potential value of second-growth forests in providing ecosystem services and conservation of biodiversity is often overlooked ITTO, ; Arroyo-Mora et al. Complications occur when secondary forests grow in degraded lands.

Regrowth is likely to be obstructed by recurring disturbances, lack of animals as dispersal agents and the distance to intact forest patches Lamb et al. These patches provide seed sources for an effective regeneration on land formerly used for intense farming Toriola et al. Natural regenera- tion is difficult to achieve under such conditions because of phys- ical, chemical, and biological barriers. Therefore, one common method to overcome the problem is reforestation Chinea, ; Shono et al.

However, one obstacle in most tropical regions is a lack of adequate funding and technical expertise Du Toit et al. Native species are known to be less http: Reforestation is thus often conducted using a limited number of exotic species such as Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Acacia Lamb et al. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that in the long run, native tree species can prevail over non-native ones Silver et al. In the Dieng Mountains area, encroachment by locals pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya the pro- tection forest resulted in conversion of the land into agricultural fields, followed by abandonment when the fields stopped producing satisfactory yields.

Subsequent reforestation projects carried out by the local authority using exotic tree species have been patchy both in time and place, and ineffective in bringing back the protective func- tion of the forest. A part of these pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya may be attributed to the state's ownership of the forest and its designation as a protection forest. This shuts out locals and prevents them from gaining any direct financial benefit from reforestation, allowing for harmful use of its resources to intensify as the result of economic pressure.

Because of the difficult terrain and limited funding, tree-tending fol- lowing reforestation has been insufficient. All of these problems are common in tropical Asia Chokkalingam et al. It should be noted that the current forest ecosystem of the Dieng Mountains does not seem to have a supply of climax tree species propagules. The suc- cession process is thus expected to deviate from the ideal scenario pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya by van Steenis for abandoned fields in Java's for- ests, which takes place when there is no pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya involved, in terms of chronology and structural features.

Pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya current farming practices, the trend of secondary forest formation will persist into the future. The lack of attention to regrowth forests on abandoned lands, as well as its ecological implications Lugo and Helmer,also applies in our case. So far, little has been done to deal with regrowth forests in the Dieng Mountains, and their value in terms of ecosystem functioning and biodiversity preservation has gone relatively unstudied.

Data on the flora and fauna and the current state of the natural vegetation, as well as historical records and long-term land-cover data, which are critical for recovery planning, are lacking in most parts of the Dieng Mountains.

This paper sought to evaluate the reforestation approach in the Dieng Mountains by investigating the develop- ment of regrowth forests, focusing on their structure and floristic composition, and based on the result, evaluate the effectiveness of the past reforestation strategies and suggest improvements to present restoration efforts. Because there were no available vegeta- tion data prior to this research, this study did not examine the for- est recovery; rather, it examined the potential patterns of succession on the different secondary vegetation types following abandonment and past reforestation.

The diminishment of the forests in the Dieng High- land was caused by uncontrolled exploitation in the past Smiet,and land encroachment for agricultural purposes in more recent years, despite relatively strict surveillance.

Extending over an area of 22, ha, the landscape is covered by a mosaic of land uses--mainly dense settlements, productive agricultural land, and patches of former farmland in different stages of abandonment. The planting season runs all year round, with farmers relying on heavy fertilizer and pesticide use to gain high yields.

Other poor farming practices that have degraded the soil quality include dishevelled terracing, drainage perpendicular to land contours, and short fallow periods.

The decrease in soil quality is a key cause pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya the pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya recovery of old-growth forest species in the secondary forest van Breugel,thus a community with poor tree diver- sity is to be expected in the Dieng Mountains' highland forests. Research was conducted in the area adjoining the heavily-culti- vated land in the Wonosobo District part of the Dieng Plateau in the middle of the Dieng Mountains.

Four major natural pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya types, namely forest, pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya, shrubland, and grassland, were identified in the research area based on their appearance and age estimates. Forests developed in areas where farming activities were absent, typically on mountain tops or steep slopes. The montane grasslands were a permanent vegetation of the Dieng Mountains, whose formations were believed to be caused by human-induced or natural distur- bances van Steenis, At some point during the regeneration period, the government conducted reforestations in these habitats in an attempt to accelerate the ecosystem recovery.

Data collection Field work was carried out between andduring the dry seasons. Only vegetation in disturbed habitats was studied, which included woodland, shrubland, and grassland habitats.

Stand selection was dictated by stand accessibility pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya path avail- ability. Vegetation data were collected using stratified systematic sampling with a random start. We employed area-proportional sampling, in which more sample plots were distributed in larger patches. The transect baseline in each pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya type was estab- lished following the main trail to cope with the steep and rugged terrain. In each baseline, transect lines were placed perpendicular to the baseline at regular distances of m, pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya approxi- mately using a pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya tape and calibrated footsteps.

Pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya each transect line, circular plots of m2 size were placed at 50 m intervals to collect data on tree species with a diameter at breast height dbh of 5 cm or larger in woodland and shrubland habitats. Because of tree scarcity in grassland, no tree data were collected from this habitat.

In woodland, m2 size plots, m2 plots, and 1-m2 plots were placed, covering a sam- ple area of Data from plots were pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya in shrubland for each plot size, totaling an area of 6. In grassland, plots of m2 and 1-m2 were placed, totaling a sample area of 1.

From each plot, the plant spe- cies were recorded and the number of individuals from each spe- cies in its respective growthform was counted. Plant species were identified in the field through their local names with the help of a native guide who was familiar with the local flora.

The diam- eters of trees and saplings were measured using a measurement tape; total height, measured from the base to the tip of the tree, was measured using a Christen hypsometer.

Plant species speci- mens were collected and kept as herbaria for later identification. Pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya data were analyzed for density, frequency, basal area, and dominance of each species in its respective growth- form. The importance value index IVI of each species was calcu- lated by summing up the relative values of the species parameters. Calculations of vegetation parameters were carried out using the formulae according to Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg Shannon's information measure and Simpson's pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya index were used to estimate the species diversity.

A bias-corrected Shannon's index by Chao and Shen was used instead of pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya classic Shannon's maximum likelihood estimator MLE; Magurran, to avoid the negative bias that normally results from the latter.

The inversed of Simpson's index with minimum variance unbiased esti- mator MVUE for a finite population was pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya used to estimate the diversity Magurran, ; Chao and Shen, To compare spe- cies diversity between habitats, a t-test suggested by Magurran was performed on the Shannon's MLE results.

Although large trees were the most dominant growthform in both woodland and shrubland, their basal-area dominance was higher in woodland. However, shrubland had a notably higher dominance of small trees than woodland. Similarly, shrubland had a higher sapling dominance compared with wood- land, while grassland had by far the lowest dominance.

The indi- vidual basal area average of trees in the large tree category was far larger in woodland than in shrubland, whereas in the small tree and sapling categories, the values were relatively similar. The aver- age of tree height was almost equivalent between woodland and shrubland for each growthform category, but grassland had a markedly higher sapling height average Table 1.

Based on the importance value index, both woodland and shrubland habitats were dominated by three tree species: Italian cypress Cupressus sempervirens L. Only two sapling species, A. In the seedling category, C. In woodland, shrub species domination was shared by seven species Fig. Shrubland was similar, with five dominating spe- cies. Species domination was more evident in grassland, where G.

The mistflower Eupatorium riparium Regel was the dominant species in woodland pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya shrub- land in the herb category, whereas grassland was dominated by the horseweed Conyza javanica Blume Fig. Table 1 Vegetation parameter values of different growthform categories in the three vegetation types in the Dieng Mountains. Tree data were not collected from grassland. Standard deviations for mean basal area and height are given in brackets.

Vegetation parameter Growthform category Vegetation parameter values in: Dominant tree species in respective growthform categories in different vegetation types based on their importance value indices IVI max. Total number of tree species in woodland: Plant species richness We listed a total of 81 plant species belonging to 44 families. Shrubland had the highest total number of plant species, while woodland had the lowest Table 2.

Compared with the tree cate- gory, saplings and seedlings were less diverse in both woodland and shrubland. The shrub and herb categories were the major con- tributors to the total plant species richness, constituting over 75 percent of the total plant species number in each habitat Table 2.

Using SPADE, it was predicted that both woodland and shrub- land had moderate levels of community heterogeneity in the tree category, with a true species richness estimate TSR ranging pengertian oposisi biner dan contohnya 10 to 26 for woodland, and 13 to 26 for shrubland Table 2.

The sapling category varied in its heterogeneity: The community heterogeneity of seedlings was low to homogenous in all habitats, with TSRs ranging from 7 to 13 for shrubland, 9 for grassland, and 5 for woodland.

Woodland and shrubland had moderate levels of community heterogeneity of the shrub layer, with TSRs between 21 and 31 for shrubland and 14 species for woodland; grassland was highly heterogeneous, with a TSR between 20 and

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Jalan Sosiohumaniora 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, This is based on the idea that households' resources in mothers' hand are more beneficial for her kids relative to the father. The notion is applied by the governments from developing countries into cash transfers' policy. These facts give us further questions whether mothers' income obtained from transfers are different in influencing child development from income obtained from labor market.

If the effects are the same between them, then an increase in married womens' employment will also result in an increase of child development. It implies that giving more opportunity to women will also give the child opportunity to be better developed. But in fact, the development issues, especially education does not stop there. In developing countries, resources to finance public expenditure are limited relative to the developed countries.

Whereas, these countries relatively have more development tasks to accomplish. So, this limited resource should be utilized to maximum beneficial of the country. This is also including education expenditure. Many programs have been made to increase households' welfare via child education that targeted poor families. But, poor families tend to allocate their income to primary needs rather than long-term investment, such as child education.

Fernandez, ; Johnson, ; Park, Yet their productivity in developing countries still inhibited by many kind of job restrictions, such as prohibited from working at night and limited paternity leave, which will limit fathers' share of child care responsibilities within household World Bank, Although gaps in educational attainment between men and women has greatly decreased, gender gap in labor force participation does not follow.

It is widening and will remain wide in the future ILO, ILO data also shows that unemployment rates among women are relatively higher than men. We find that many research has been mainly only on the impact of mothers' employment or mothers' bargaining power on child outcomes. This paper examines the effect of mothers' employment and also mothers' power on education expenditure of the children.

We use the case in Indonesia as our focus in this research. As an emerging country, Indonesia shows the decreasing in womens' labor force participation rate. In , the labor force participation rate of women was These numbers are more than 30 percentage points below labor force participation rate of men and widening across years.

This shows that education is one of the top priority in Indonesia. Certain policies have been made by the government to increase educational attainment among students over years, such as year compulsory education programme, Bantuan Operasional Sekolah School Operational Assistance Grant that launched in , Bantuan Siswa Miskin Poor Students Assistance Programme , and Program Keluarga Harapan Conditional Cash Transfer Programme.

Despite all the policies that been made for better education and equity in Indonesia, educational attainment remains low. This phenomenon denotes possible ineffectiveness from the policies execution. Furthermore, these policies give limited consideration to the notion about mother as the key to child development. Many studies measure the effect of women power directly to childs' development and purchasing for certain goods in developing countries.

Study in China rural area use women power measured by head of household status. Women become powerful when women become head of household. The increase in women controlling power within household increase childs' health status especially for daughter. Female household also have preference to spend more in durable goods purchasing LIU, Another study in developing countries have similar finding. Women power, not only measured by household status or power got from job. Some studies use mother education as women power proxy.

The effect of mother educational attainment also has significant effect on child nutrition. In other hand, there is no effect of women power on cognitive skill in case Chilean mother. Before controlling socio-economic status and demographic characteristics, there is positive significant effect between women involvement in labor market and childs' cognitive skill for mother who spent their time on job.

Other studies found that additional resources to the families managed by mother as the decision-maker are tend to be spent on childs' capital Rangel, ; Duflo, Women power is affected by women involvement in labor market, and it also affect human capital investment. Study for Mexican manufacturing household analyze women opportunity in job market and its impact on women power and human capital accumulation within household.

Women power is measured by who are have power to determine household decision in certain goods. The study shows that an increase in women opportunity significantly increases women power and household expenditure for childs' medicine and clothing. Women power is measured by number of jobs available for women relative to men. Increase in women participation in workforce also affect childs' health outcome, but only for daughters Majlesi, The effect of women power not only exist when mother enter job market, but also from non-labor income.

Brazils' Bolsa Familia programme increase women role in households' decision-making process, although the effect is only appeared for urban households. This finding also supported with findings in Mexican Progresa. Female specific income also affect children related good expenditures Bobonis, These imply the importance of mothers' role in the household as well as her employment on the decisions that will affect childrens' well-being in developing countries, not exception Indonesia, which become our main focus.

Furthermore, this gave us an insight that empower women through employment and increase women related income is important. Specific to schooling expenditure, study in urban China show that increase in overall household income disproportionally rise education spending.

Women participation in labor market also affect household education behaviour. In India, mother involvement in job increase homework and investment for academic purposes.

Study about women power also had done in Indonesia. Using IFLS 3, 4, and 5, the study observes the effect of women control to education spending. In the case when households' decisions are determined together, education spending is increase rather than only one-sided decision.

An increase in women power measured by increase in relative income of mother, increase education expenditure A. This study measures the relative income of mother, but not measures the cutoff between working mother and non-working mother, so it cannot show the important of women entering job market.

This study contributes to the effects of women involvement in labor market on household education related expenditure spending. This study also contributes to check whether working mother are matters in type of women involvement in schooling decision setting. Then we check this effect with the setting of developing countries. Our empirical result shows that working mothers only have positive and significant impact on education expenditure if the mother have power to control for education expenditure of their children.

Our findings also imply that having mother participates in labor market will change households' expenditure pattern to spend more on education. This effect only significant when mother has role in schooling decision.

Also, the effect is larger for more educated families. Indonesia Family Life Survey Data is panel data that allow us to identify household's behaviour over time. IFLS was conducted in late of each year and the early of next survey year. We use these datasets because they give us detail information about household characteristics, spending patterns and the most important intra-household decision making process for schooling. Intra-household decision making data does not appear in every survey conducted in Indonesia, and IFLS become one of survey that gives us detail information about household decision making process.

We also restrict to use IFLS 4 and 5 only because these datasets will give us the biggest number of household. This programme gives school assistance to finance school operational cost that lead to decrease in school administration fee. Before this era, school are free to charge many administration fees to student, that directly increase cost of attending school.

Using these data, we get households' education spending as outcome and mother job and mother involvement in schooling decision as independent variables. We also derive household characteristic data consist of households' farm land ownership, mothers' age, fathers' income, household's living area, number of working people, number of schooling children, number of household's member, gender of head of household, income per-capita, and ethnicity marriage. We also collect father and mother educational attainment and mother working status.

Mother definition is someone who are being head of household and have female gender or spouse of male head of household. Father is defined as male who are being head of household or spouse of female head of household.

We cannot use mother and father in detail per child because there is no information about main families' expenditure in specific for all observation, there is just information about extended families' expenditure whose definition is a group of people live from same kitchen. We restrict sample for our estimation.

From initial 15, households, we get 6, households for our observation. First, we exclude households whose do not have spending patterns information. Second, we keep complete household information about mother job and mother involvement in schooling decision. Third, we drop household whose cannot provide household characteristics detail including households' farm land ownership, household's living area, number of working people, number of schooling children, number of household's member, gender of head of household, mothers' education, fathers' education, fathers' income, ethnicity marriage, and income per-capita.

Next, we keep households who have no missing data for mother and father characteristics. Then, we drop only one time appeared households in survey year to obtain balance panel data. Estimation Strategy This study develops econometrics model to estimate the relationship between mother working status and household education spending.

We use mother working status and mother influence in households' schooling decision. We estimate this relationship using this model: Year fixed effects, province fixed effects, and interaction between year and province effects also used in our estimation.

We use share of education spending as proxy of education spending. It allows us to get better estimation rather than use log of expenditure.

Log expenditure can explain us how working mother can increase or decrease the human capital investment but cannot measure the change of behaviour.

Mother can invest more in education because she works, but it is not guarantee that she prioritizes human capital investment. Mother can use the money to increase all of expenditure post. This increase cannot capture the mothers' behaviour to invest more in education. By using share of education expenditure, we can capture this behaviour.