Psychology and discipline in binary options trading22 comments
Tax on exercised share options
This chapter assesses the changing nature of the labour market in South Africa. It recommends that COSATU commit itself to the strategic objective of organising vulnerable sectors and vulnerable layers of workers. The current situation Increasing labour market flexibility is one of the key characteristics of globalisation world-wide. This generates increasing differentiation and fragmentation within the organised working class as different workers perceive themselves as having different interests.
These trends are closely linked to increasing wage flexibility discussed under wage policy in Chapter 4. Vulnerable layers of workers in otherwise strongly organised sectors such as manufacturing, mining, the public sector, and the retail chains. Skilled and white-collar workers. In construction the large majority of unskilled and semi-skilled workers are on fixed-term contracts.
Construction sites are not permanent workplaces. The industry is highly cyclical, so many workers are unemployed for long periods of time. The Framework Agreement on labour-intensive construction also tends to marginalise the trade unions. Organisation in this sector is quite weak and relatively small.
In many strongly organised sectors, there are increasing trends to create categories of employment which place workers in a weaker relationship to management: Through these strategies, employers are seeking to create groups of workers that have little bargaining power, less job security and worse wages, benefits and conditions than permanent workers.
As noted above, we see such trends as the re-emergence of apartheid employment strategies in a new form. SASBO is a white-collar union. SADTU is an organisation of professionals. With the exception of SASBO and SADTU, most of our white-collar workers are in the lower skill and pay category of administrative, clerical and sales staff, where it is appropriate to pursue similar strategies of organisation and collective bargaining to our strategies for blue-collar workers.
Establishing new unions, or distinct sections of existing unions Many layers of white-collar workers have very different interests, and require different kinds of service and collective bargaining to our traditional members.
For example, they may be more concerned with their individual career paths and promotion, benefits, skills criteria for qualifying for their occupation for example, artisans, nurses, doctors. Their interests tend to be opposed to wage solidarity. As a result, in many countries they are organised into separate unions or federations, or separate sections of mixed unions. This issue has emerged in debates in South Africa about organising nurses and financial sector workers.
COSATU would need to debate the appropriate organisational structures Developing new strategies and skills, employing new staff If COSATU affiliates want to organise these layers of workers, they will have to devote resources, time and energy to developing new skills and new organising and bargaining strategies. They may also have to develop benefit funds, or new approaches to negotiating benefits.
Organising skilled or white-collar workers also means unions need to employ such workers as officials and organisers, because they have the necessary skills, knowledge of the work, and understanding of grievances.
Changing the culture of our affiliates and Federation COSATU and its affiliates have been built with a culture of collective solidarity, mass militancy and radical politics. This culture can easily accommodate lower levels of white-collar workers.
These characterisitics have implications for affiliates which try to incorporate them, or a federation which seeks to affiliate them. COSATU would have to reflect carefully on its existing culture, and on ways to accommodate the aspirations and interests of new layers of workers. Ultimately, COSATU could end up being based in a shrinking section of the working class, as has happened to trade unions in a number of countries. COSATU could commit itself to campaigning to organise such workers, and to protect and improve their working conditions, pay, benefits and job security.
The affiliates would have to commit resources and develop a strategic focus on this area if they wish to achieve these goals. It would remain the largest and most powerful federation, and could concentrate its resources on organising vulnerable workers. There is a particular need to organise vulnerable sectors and layers of workers.
The sub-contracting, casualising and division of workers is an attempt to deny workers the very citizenship rights that democracy promises them: It is the re-emergence in a new form of apartheid employment strategies. It should be noted that mergers will not automatically solve the problem. Vulnerable sectors within strong affiliates may find themselves starved of strategic capacity, finance, organisers, etc. A solution may be to establish a separate department in the union, with a budget and national staff.
This applies as much to existing affiliates as to potential mergers. The national office bearers NOBs , led by the NOB responsible for the organising, education and campaigns portfolio, together with the organising department and the new Exco see Chapter 10 , should drive the process of finding strategic solutions for the vulnerable sectors.
The NOBs and the organising department should prepare a discussion paper, in consultation with all relevant affiliates, to be tabled at Exco by February COSATU should mobilise around a regular Summer Offensive campaign at the beginning of each year to mobilise shopstewards and organisers across affiliates in a campaign to organise new members, with a specific focus on vulnerable workers, both in strongly organised sectors and in vulnerable sectors.
The campaign should include education programmes for shopstewards and organisers about the specific problems facing vulnerable workers, and their rights under legislation and bargaining council agreements, and tactics and strategies for defending them. The campaign would be a build-up to the annual round of collective bargaining, and could ensure that the demands and interests of vulnerable workers are included in negotiations. A clear focus should be developed for the Summer Offensive campaign each year, including goals, targets, demands and slogans.
The campaign should build the profile of COSATU among vulnerable workers, create public awareness of the problems of such workers, and mobilise the enthusiasm and creativity of union activists.
Most affiliates are confronted by increasing numbers of vulnerable workers in their sectors. Each affiliate needs to develop focused campaigns to organise and defend these workers. There are a number of suggestions in Section 4. The COSATU organising and education departments should produce a manual on the problems and grievances of vulnerable workers, on their rights, and on tactics and strategies for organising and defending them. The manual should be designed for use by shopstewards and organisers, and in education programmes.
COSATU should start discussions with the organisations that already exist among informal sector working people, with a view to understanding their concerns, how they organise and who they represent. COSATU should, together with other trade unions in the region, call for a Southern African summit of governments and trade unions to discuss migration. The summit should address the economic imbalances and inequalities in the region by adopting a regional Reconstruction and Development Programme as a strategy for building the economy of the entire region, underpinned by the cooperation of governments, labour and capital.
The summit should also address the issue of a negotiated quota on numbers of workers allowed into countries in the region, taking into account the economic imbalances of the region. COSATU and affiliates need to draw on the tradition of an organising, campaigning style of unionism to organise vulnerable workers and sectors. COSATU affiliates should develop targeted and sustained campaigns in specific industries or companies with the aim of achieving specific goals eg, organising enough members to establish a bargaining council, or achieving specific benefits or rights.
An example could be organising all forestry workers, or campaigning for health and safety rights of sub-contractors. A combination of tactics should be employed - recruiting, industrial action, media, legal, lobbying the department of labour etc. COSATU affiliates should engage in struggles to prevent or limit use of casual labour, sub-contracted labour and especially labour brokers in their workplaces.
Where these forms of employment exist or cannot be prevented, affiliates should try - through struggle and negotiation - to limit the differences in wages and conditions between such workers and permanent workers. The vulnerability and isolation of many vulnerable workers in the workplace often makes collective approaches difficult. COSATU NOBs and the organising department should assist affiliates to identify the specific capacities they may need in order to pursue such strategies effectively and consistently, eg specialised officials, health and safety officers, specific departments or teams, lawyers etc.
Some officials and shopstewards do not take the problems and grievances of non-standard workers in their workplaces seriously, and even regard them as second-class workers.
Even where officials and shopstewards do not hold these views, union practices may tend to exclude non-standard workers and their interests. Building campaigns, establishing complaints services and other strategies outlined above, will help to change this.
In addition, we recommend:. COSATU and affiliates should develop the capacity to use the wage board effectively to set minimum wages and conditions; this means being able to gather the data to support demands, and mobilising campaigns in support of these demands. COSATU and affiliates need to make continuous use of the various instruments for monitoring and policing compliance with these minimums - the bargaining councils, the labour department - and put constant pressure on these to improve their capacity and performance.
COSATU and affiliates should equip shopstewards - through education programmes and manuals - to monitor compliance with basic conditions and minimum standards in their workplaces, and encourage them to defend all workers against non-compliance by employers.
It should investigate the possibility of banning labour brokers where the sole purpose is to reduce labour costs, or at least strengthening regulation of them and penalties for breaking regulations. COSATU should campaign for a national minimum wage, indexed to collective bargaining outcomes, to protect vulnerable workers.
The same criteria should be laid down for assistance to any small businesses via small business development or financing agencies.